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Evaluating the Impact of ERPO and DVRO Firearm Relinquishment Laws on Pregnancy-Associated Homicide


This study will evaluate whether state extreme risk protection order (ERPO) and domestic violence restraining order (DVRO) firearm prohibition laws impact state trends in rates of intimate partner homicide, with a special focus on victims who are pregnant or up to 1 year postpartum (pregnancy-associated homicide).




This study seeks to simultaneously build evidence on the impact of ERPOs to reduce pregnancy-associated homicide and racial inequities in this outcome while advancing our understanding of the role and relevance of such evidence to policymakers and other stakeholders in state firearm policy development.


We will analyze existing data on state firearm policy and homicide rates covering the past decade to answer the following questions:

  • Do states that enact both an ERPO and DVRO law experience subsequent declines in intimate partner homicide and pregnancy-associated homicide?
  • Is the impact of these laws the same across racial/ethnic identities?

Concurrently, in a qualitative case study using key informant interviews with stakeholders in domestic violence prevention, state policy development, and enforcement, we will explore the question:

  • What are barriers and opportunities for the translation of scientific evidence into policies to prevent gun violence and reduce racial inequities?


Homicide is a leading cause of death among pregnant and postpartum people in the U.S., and most cases are perpetrated by an intimate partner with a gun. This work will inform evidence-based state policy solutions that may protect the health and safety of people during pregnancy and beyond.

Investigator Bio

Maeve Wallace, PhD, is a reproductive epidemiologist with over a decade of experience studying maternal mortality and violent maternal death in the U.S. Broadly, her research interests focus on the social, structural, and policy determinants of maternal and child health and health inequities. She is actively involved in research and practice collaborations with state and local governmental public health agencies and community-based organizations on efforts to promote maternal health and safety.

Grant Amount
Award Type
Tulane University in collaboration with Drexel University and the New Orleans Health Department
Maeve Wallace, associate professor of epidemiology, Tulane University
Expected Completion Date
February 2026
Focus Areas